Kappa I carrageenan is the one of the highest power of gelling, giving water or milk gels of high gel strength , since it has a content of ester sulphate of 24 to 25% and from 35 to 40% of anhydrous galactose (AG) that imparts this property. Its activation temperature is located next to the 75 °C.
This high gel strength allows to employ low dosages to get the desired firmness.
Water dispersions that are not subjected to heating give very low viscosity.
The gels are firm, brittle and have moderate syneresis.
This carrageenan is obtained only from cold water red seaweeds and is characterized by a high reactivity with milk proteins. It has a content of ester sulphate of 25 to 28% and 32 to 34% of 3-6 anhyudrous galactose that has influence on viscosity and on the characteristics of the gel. The activation temperature is around 70°C.
Water dispersions in cold water or at room temperature give moderate viscosity.
Gels are firm and elastic and have less syneresis than the gels made with Kappa I carrageenan.
It is a carrageenan that forms very elastic gels in water and in milk characterized by a very low syneresis. It has a content of ester sulphate groups between 30 and 32% and 28 to 32% of 3-6 AG.
The gels are thixotropic; gels that when are subjected to agitation behave as a viscous dispersions and when are left to rest, recover the elastic solid behavior , allowing its use in products packed at low temperature that regain their firmness within the container.
Iota carrageenans also have very good stability to freeze-thawing cycles, preventing syneresis and ice formation in frozen products and maintaining their creaminess.
It is the only carrageenan that does not require temperature for its hydration since it has an approximate content of 35% ester sulphate and 0% of 3-6 anhydrous galactose, that confers its high capacity of hydration in water and in cold milk, giving high viscosity to these systems; hence is highly recommended for instant powder products where it is required to develop body without heating .